DetailsMuara Angke Nature Reserve
Muara Angke Wildlife Reserve (SMMA) was designated as a nature reserve by the Dutch East Indies government on 17 June 1939, with an initial area of 15.04 ha. Then the area was expanded so that in about 1960s recorded has an area of 1343.62 ha. With increasing pressure and environmental degradation both within and around the Muara Angke region, some of these nature reserves are subsequently damaged. Thus, after 60 years of status as a nature reserve, in 1998 the Government changed the status of this area into a wildlife reserve to rehabilitate it. This status change is determined through the Decree of the Minister of Forestry and Plantation No. 097 / Kpts-II / 1998 as Muara Angke Wildlife Reserve with a total area of 25.02 ha. Although SMMA is the smallest wildlife reserve in Indonesia, its role is quite important. Even BirdLife International - one of the world's bird conservation organizations - includes the Muara Angke area as one of the important birds (IBA, Important Bird Areas) of Java
SMMA is home to various species of birds and various other animals that have been hard to find in other areas of Jakarta. Jakarta Green Monster recorded all 91 species of birds, namely 28 species of water birds and 63 species of forest birds, living in this region. About 17 species of them are protected bird species.
Types of birds that often encountered include small pecs (Phalacrocorax niger), cuntak (Ardeola spp.), Egrets (Egretta spp.), Kareo rice (Amaurornis phoenicurus), mandar stone (Gallinula chloropus), ordinary paret (Psittacula alexandri ), merbah cerukcuk (Pycnonotos goiavier), striped fan (Rhipidura javanica), sea screws (Gerygone sulphurea) and others. Some of these are typical birds of mangrove forests such as mangrove sweeps (Cyornis rufigastra). In addition, SMMA is also home to Javanese perenjak (Prinia familiaris).
SMMA is also inhabited by several species of endemic birds, which exist only on the island of Java. For example Javanese cerimony (Charadrius javanicus) and Javanese lathe (Centropus nigrorufus). Java lathe is known as one of the endangered species in the world, with limited spreading in some places including in SMMA. Another endangered bird that inhabits this area is the crane bluwok (Mycteria cinerea). In Java, this type of crane is known only breeds on Rambut Island located not far from Muara Angke.
In addition to the species of birds, in the SMMA is also still found wild groups of monkeys kra or also commonly called long-tailed monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). They live in groups up to a dozen tails consisting of several males and females. The main food is the young leaves and fruits of the mangrove forest such as pidada (Sonneratia caseolaris). Long-tailed monkeys have an important role in the Muara Angke Wildlife Sanctuary, as they help spread the seeds of forest plants. The seeds that can not be digested will be removed again along with the feces.
Another type of mammals that can be found in SMMA, but rarely seen, is the small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea). Small fish carnivores and various aquatic animals are especially active at night (nocturnal).
SMMA is also home to a variety of reptile species such as water lizards (Varanus salvator), python flower (Python reticulatus), Javanese spoon java (Naja sputatrix) snake, snake (Bungarus fasciatus), mackerel (Homalopsis buccata) raccoon ring (Boiga dendrophila), snake shoot (Ahaetula prasina) and mangrove snake (Cerberus rhynchops). According to information from local residents, in SMMA is also found also the type of crocodile estuary (Crocodylus porosus).