The Muara Angke Wildlife Reserve (Suaka Margasatwa Muara Angke, SMMA)

 

The Muara Angke Wildlife Reserve (Suaka Margasatwa Muara Angke, SMMA) is a small conservation area of mangrove forests on the north coast of Jakarta. It was originally established by the Netherlands Indies government as a nature preserve on 17 June 1939 with an area of 15.04 ha, and later expanded to 1,344.62 ha in the 1960s.

As the last remaining mangrove forest in Jakarta, SMMA, which has a conservation area of 25.02 hectares, is Jakarta's last line of defense against seawater abrasion and rising tides, as well as functioning as lungs for the city and a runoff area for floodwaters.

 

 

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